Thursday, May 21, 2020
Abstract The system of interconnected businesses used to push a product from supplier to consumer is defined as a supply chain. Supply chain management focuses on managing the supply chain in an effort to improve the quality and time it requires to manufacture a product. In addition to implementing supply chain management, a helpful lean production practice called Just-in-time can be used to remove any waste present along the supply chain. The marriage of lean production and supply chain management creates lean supply chain management, which provides a much leaner and more economical supply chain for the product to flow through. Supply Chain Management and Lean Production Much uncertainty about what supply chain managementÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Today, management of the supply chain can be completed through the use of supply chain management software, such as E2Open. Supply chain management allows a company to document and track data pertaining to the supply chain. Benefits of the supply chain management Supply chain management places importance on managing the customer relationship, as well as the supplier relationship. By effectively managing these relationships, the company can become more competitive, while increasing the quality of the product to the customer. Placing emphasis on the supplier relationship and the businesses along the supply chain increases product efficiency and quality. The importance placed on the customer relationship focuses on the demands and needs of the customer. Through effective communication within the relationships along the supply chain, a basic balance of supply and demand is established. The eight SCM processes The presence of standard processes within an organization assists in optimizing the product flow (Lambert 2008). The implementation of standard processes allows each area on the supply chain to share common knowledge and information in an effort to have the all supply chain participants strive to achieve a common goal. These processes place emphasis on the business as a whole, instead of only focusing on the end product. Lambert (2008) identifies the eight supply chain management processes as being: Ã¢â¬ ¢ CustomerShow MoreRelatedSupply Chain Management and Lean Production Through-Out the World1974 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesSupply Chain Management and Lean Production Through-out the World The system of interconnected businesses used to push a product from supplier to consumer is defined as a supply chain. Supply chain management focuses on managing the supply chain in an effort to improve the quality and time it requires to manufacture a product. To implementing supply chain management, a helpful lean production practice called Just-in-time can be used to remove any waste present along the supply chain. 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Applying lean concepts goes beyond having a better product than competitors; itÃ¢â¬â¢s the supply chains ability to create end-to-end value for the organization and customer. Therefore, for the supply chain to provide organizational success collaboration with all users is critical because effective communication can clearly address expectations and align everyone to work towards a joint goal for mutual suc cess (Jasti Kodali, 2015). Lean supply chain is a catalyst for enhancing productRead MoreProduction Plan for Riordan Manufacturing1315 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesA Production Plan For Riordan Manufacturing OPS/571 Operations Management A Production Plan For Riordan Riordan Manufacturing has a reputation for precision and innovation. As a Fortune 1000 enterprise, Riordan cannot afford to have the issues of bottlenecking affecting their production. As a result, a detailed analysis of the bottlenecks, the effects, and appropriate strategic planning were examined. Lean production planning was examined as was new processes. The details of the new processes
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"The idea of perfection, Ã¢â¬Å"Iris defines in more details the concepts of attention, vision, imagination and love, and all of these figure in the concept of freedom. Her idea of perfection is moral progress, the movement toward a better vision of an object or a person, in order to seek out the reality of something or someone else. Iris defines that: Ã¢â¬Å"Art is the most educational of all human activities and a place in which the nature of morality can be seen. Hence, good art inspires love in the highest part of the soul.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Plato describes the role of great art as an educator and revealer. What is learnt in art is about the real quality of human nature.Ã¢â¬ (63) In an interview took place during August 1987 at Iris Murdochs home in Oxford by S.B Sagare, Murdoch shared her view about the connotations of great novels. Sagere asked that:Ã¢â¬ You say that the great novel is shaped by the vision of the artistÃ¢â¬â I mean, Ã¢â¬Ëa novelist should have a view point of mature moralityÃ¢â¬â¢ (Ã¢â¬ËSublime and Beautiful RevisitedÃ¢â¬â¢ 257). Will you please elaborate?Ã¢â¬ Murdoch answered: Ã¢â¬Å"I think the fundamental thing which a great novel cant be without is a kind of moral vision, an ability of the writer to judge justly his own general attitude to his society and attitude to his characters. This is what must be deep, must be just, and must be compassionate. The presence of these virtues, the ability to see thing in perspective also implies an ability to express what is funny in the right sort of way. These are
Carlene Reyes 809000173 Question 2: Describe the relationship between research design and sample design Before examining both sample design and research design it is important to be clear about the role and purposes of each design. Research design is a plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that a hypothesis can be tested properly. Every type of empirical research has a form of implicit research design. We will write a custom essay sample on Statistic: Sampling and Research Design or any similar topic only for you Order Now A design is a logical sequence that connects to empirical data to a studyÃ¢â¬â¢s initial research question and ultimately it, to its conclusion. According to Adam G Bluman in his book Elementary Statistic define research design as a logical plan from getting from here to there, where here may be defined as initial questions to be answered , and there is some conclusion (answers) to these questions . Another text book has described research design as a plan that guides the investigator in the process of collecting analyzing and interpreting observations. It is a logical method of proof that allows the researcher to draw inreferences concerning causal relations among the variables under investigations (Nachmias andNachmaias 1992 pp. 77-78). Research design can be seen as the Ã¢â¬Å"blue printÃ¢â¬ for your research, dealing with at least four problems what question to study, what data are relevant, what data to collect and how to analyze the results. As a result research design is more than just a work plan it is what makes social science scientific. In addition there are various forms of research design that can be broken up into both quantitative and qualitative research design. Qualitative research follows a naturalistic paradigm which is based on the idea that reality is not predetermined, but is constructed by the participants in the research (Vishnevsky and Beanlands 2004, p. 235). It aims at exploring the phenomenon in question by focusing on the individuals who experience it, assuming that it is possible to maximize the understanding of the phenomenon by minimizing the interpersonal distance between the researcher and the participant. Qualitative research in non-experimental, with no dependent or independent variables. The idea is to understand phenomena as a whole. Qualitative research is done Ã¢â¬Å"in the fieldÃ¢â¬ and requires ongoing data collection and analysis. The data collection and methodology are flexible, and allow for modifications throughout the research process, gathering subjective data that includes thoughts and perceptions of the participants and the researchers alike. Qualitative research does not choose a representative sample of the population, but only chooses as participants those who have rich experiences in the phenomena of concern, and the sample size is rarely predetermined, because researchers include as many participants as necessary to give an understanding of the phenomena (Vishnevsky and Beanlands, 2004, p. 235). Whereas, in quantitative research the researcher aim is to determines the relationships between one thing (an independent variable) and another (a dependent or outcome variable) in a population. Quantitative research designs are either descriptive (subjects usually measured once) or experimental (subjects measured before and after a treatment). Descriptive studies are also called observational, because you observe the subjects without otherwise intervening. Descriptive research provides answers to the questions of who, what, when, where, and how for example a study measuring various attributes of salespeople, a training program, or a retailing situation. Experimental studies are also known as longitudinal or repeated measures studies, for obvious reasons. They are also referred to as interventions, because you do more than just observe the subjects. However the sample design provides information on the target and final sample sizes, strata definitions and the sample selection methodology. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a relatively small subset selected from a population. Sampling design is a process of selecting a member of a unit for a study in such a way that the unit represents the larger group from which they are selected. Sampling makes possible the study of a large heterogeneous population. There are different forms of sampling design it can be classified as probability sampling and non-probability sampling. Probability sampling is a proportion and such sample is selected from the population by means of some systematic way in which every elements of the population has a chance of being included in the sample. With this research it is more complex its time consuming and more costly. Non probability sample is not a proportion of the population which there is no system in selecting the sample. The selection depends upon the situations no assurance is given that each has a chance of being included as a sample. The first form of probability sampling is Random sampling this type of sampling is one in which everyone in the population of the inquiry has an equal chance of being selected to be included in the sample. Its main advantage of this technique of sampling is that it is easy to understand and it is easy to apply too. Its disadvantage is that it is hard to use with too large a population because of the difficulty encountered in writing the names of the person involved. Another form of sample design is systematic sampling a technique of sampling in which every kth member of a list may be selected to be included. This form of sampling is called interval sampling there is a gap or interval between each selected unit in the sample. Its main advantage is that it is more convenient faster and more economical. Its disadvantage is that if the sample might become biased. Stratified sampling is another form of sampling the process of selecting randomly , samples from different strata of the population used in the study a sample obtained by dividing the population into groups, called strata according to the various homogeneous characteristic and then selecting members from each stratum for the sample . Its advantage is that it contributes much to the representative of the sample. Cluster sampling also called multi-stage sampling are used when the population is so big or the geographical area of the research is so large, it is therefore efficient to use. Its disadvantage is that it reduced accuracy or representativeness on the account of the fact that every stage there is a sampling error. Non probability sampling methods into two broad types are accidental and purposive. Most sampling methods are purposive in nature because we usually approach the sampling problem with a specific plan in mind. The most important distinctions among these types of sampling methods are the ones between the different types of purposive sampling approaches. In purposive sampling, researchers sample with a purpose in mind. We usually would have one or more specific predefined groups we are seeking. Accidental sampling is where the first set of available appropriate sample are used. To conclude research design function is to ensure evidence obtained enables us to answer the initial question as unambiguously as possible. Thus, we need to ask what kind of evidence is needed to answer these questions. Research design is thus equated with both qualitative designs whereas sample design is equated with both probability and non probability sampling. Sampling design involves taking a proportion of the population to do your research project. How to cite Statistic: Sampling and Research Design, Essays
Friday, April 24, 2020
There is something romantic about this building- its tall frame, its minimal design, the elegant black bands running around the building, the use of tinted black aluminum curtain with bronze tinted glazing, the bundled tubular form etc etc. I have always been a fan of minimalism, courtesy Mies Van Der Rohe, and I have a thing for buildings with the Ã¢â¬Ëskin and bonesÃ¢â¬â¢ kind of appeal, a characteristic found essentially in the design of this building. It is almost like nudism in art, only that the canvas is 110 story tall. The form speaks for itself, and there is no articulation, almost like saying Ã¢â¬ËLove me or Hate me, but this is meÃ¢â¬â¢. But yes, the SearÃ¢â¬â¢s tower certainly has the Ã¢â¬ËLess is MoreÃ¢â¬â¢ kind of appeal. You certainly cannot compare it to any of the Ã¢â¬Ëfreaky, eccentricÃ¢â¬â¢ architecture in Dubai, with its Disneyland inspired buildings. The Sears tower has its own class, it is like Al Pacino- It is a legend. We will write a custom essay sample on Sears Tower or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Keeping the Form of the building aside, The Sears Tower has served for decades as a triumph of engineering. The tower is essentially a series of nine tubes, bound together. Think of it as a pack of cigarettes with each tube rising higher than the rest. The shortest tubes are 50 stories, the second set rises to 66, the third set to 90, and the final to 110 stories. At the mechanical floors are extra trusses which act like belts wrapping around the building and helping counteract the forces of strong winds. The structure of this tower was designed by the Late Fazlur Khan, who was a partner in SOM. He is the first person to introduce the bundled tubular structure in 1973 leading to development of non-box like forms in buildings. With the new Sustainability measures being brought in by the new Owners of the Sears Tower, I was pleasantly surprised with the fact that it is moving with the times. Nobody likes to run a vintage car with a fuel guzzling mileage. I really hope this car is ready for its second innings.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Enron Case Study Introduction Agency problem is one of the major challenges that shareholders face in their effort to maximize wealth through investment. One source of agency problems is associated with the existence of conflicts of interest. In an effort to increase their earnings, firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ management teams engage in unethical practices such as financial irregularities. Additionally, they also implement operational strategies that aim at maximizing their firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ profitability rather than the shareholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ wealth.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Enron specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, to better illustrate how the operational strategies implemented by firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ management teams can cause a firm to collapse, this paper evaluates the case of Enron Corporation. More focus goes to the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural environment and the implemented management control. The paper also conducts an analysis of Enron Ã¢â¬â¢s ineffectiveness in implementing a strong organizational culture and its inefficient management control system. Case background The case illustrates the rise and collapse of Enron Corporation. Some of the salient features evident in the case include: Factors that contributed to the rise of the company These factors are clearly illustrated and explained. The case makes it evident that EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s collapse was due to inefficient control by the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s Chief Executive Officer, Jeff Skilling. The leadership style adopted by Jeff Skilling Leadership style stands out as the major factor that contributed towards the emergence of an inefficient organizational culture. Establishment of a Ã¢â¬Å"new economyÃ¢â¬ - Skilling laid more emphasis on transforming the firm from being an Ã¢â¬Å"old economyÃ¢â¬ to being a Ã¢â¬Å"new economyÃ¢â¬ . However, the leadership style he adopted had a negative impact on the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s effort to achieve its goal. Management contr ol system The case cites inefficiency in controlling the activities of the employees, which comes out as a major cause that significantly contributed towards the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s failure. Company attributes Enron Corporation was energy and commodities trading company, which was formed in 1985 by Kenneth Lay. Its headquarters were located in Houston, in the US. The firm owned the most extensive natural gas pipeline in the US. In a quest to maximize its profitability, the firm ventured into the international market. In addition to its energy business, Enron also positioned itself as a giant with regard to water and wastewater management having ventured into the industry in 1998. Upon its market entry, the firm gained global recognition courtesy of its strategic move with regard to its adoption of the Ã¢â¬Å"new economyÃ¢â¬ strategy. EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s management team appreciated the importance of diversification in an effort to maximize profitability. Consequently, the firm established n umerous divisions. Some of these divisions included online marketplace, transportation, wholesale, and broadband services. The firmÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to incorporate the concept of product and service diversification emanated from its foundersÃ¢â¬â¢ focus on steering it towards maximizing the shareholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ value. Business strategy The success of a firm depends on the effectiveness with which it formulates and implements business strategies. In the course of its operation, Enron adopted a business strategy that focused on attaining a high rate of expansion. Consequently, Enron incorporated a number of business strategies, which included internationalization and formation of mergers and acquisitions.Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The firmÃ¢â¬â¢s success in the international market emanated from its ability to implement strategic practices such as acq uisitions. For example, in 1987, Enron acquired Zond Corporation, a leader in wind-power, which provided an opportunity to venture into the renewable energy sector. The firm was very effective in venturing into the international market. In its internationalization strategy, one source of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s success was its ability to formulate and implement effective international marketing campaigns. Industry analysis using PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s five forces Understanding industry characteristic is paramount in a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts to formulate and implement competitive strategies. The porterÃ¢â¬â¢s model is one of the frameworks that are suitable in analyzing the intensity of competition, buyer and supplier bargaining power, degree of rivalry, and threat of entry of a particular industry. The industry was experiencing an increment in threat of entry due to its profitability potential. New firms especially firms dealing in production of renewable energy were considering the possibility of venturing into the industry to exploit the presented profitability. The threat of entry was minimal given that there were minimal legal barriers. The emergence of renewable forms of energy significantly increased the threat of substitute. Consumers were switching to renewable forms of energy. The intensity of competition led to an increment in the degree of industry rivalry. The various alternatives with regard to forms of energy significantly increased the buyersÃ¢â¬â¢ power. This aspect emanated from the fact that they could switch at a minimal cost. On the other hand, the suppliersÃ¢â¬â¢ bargaining power was low due to the large number of suppliers. SWOT Analysis Strengths Pipeline infrastructure-The firm established an elaborate natural gas pipeline network in the United States. The firmÃ¢â¬â¢s name attained a relatively high credibility given that it ranked 7th on the Fortune 500. Positive reputation-In the course of its operation, Enron managed to attain and sustain positive reputation. Its strength also emanated from the fact that it had attained a monopolistic advantage over its competitors emanating from its large size. The firm achieved this goal by positioning itself as the largest energy provider in the US. Human capital pool- A firmÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to attain high competitive advantage relative to its competitors is directly impacted by the quality of its human capital. In its operation, Enron had been very effective in enhancing its employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ skills, abilities, knowledge, and capabilities by undertaking comprehensive training and development.Advertising We will write a custom case study sample on Enron specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Innovation- EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s management team appreciated the fact that it operated in a very dynamic industry. Consequently, it laid great emphasis on innovation in an effort to thrive. Its innovation ability enabled Enron to shift from natural gas an d energy transportation to being a trading company. The firm specifically focused on other areas such as pulp and paper production, coal, steel, and communication business lines. Marketing and value delivery- Since its establishment, Enron had been committed towards meeting the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs. Its ability to identify and deliver customer values played a significant role in enabling Enron to attain an optimal market position. Weaknesses Failed board of directors- The firmÃ¢â¬â¢s board of directors did not execute its oversight role effectively, which stands out clearly in the face of its inability to monitor the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s operations through its committees. Additionally, the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s board of directors failed in enhancing moral and ethical practices within the firm. As a result, its auditors and employees engaged in unethical practices such as deceit. Conflict of interest- The firmÃ¢â¬â¢s weakness also stands out given the inability of the management team to con trol conflicts of interest that occurred in various transactions that the firm engaged in during its existence. This aspect pushed the firm into great losses due to the persistent fraud, which further necessitated the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s collapse. Opportunities Public reputation -In the course of its operation, Enron developed a strong public reputation, which presents an opportunity that the firm could have exploited in the course of its operation. Consumers associated Enron with its ability to provide quality energy. Consequently, Enron could have exploited such public perception to expand its pipeline and other businesses. Additionally, Enron could have exploited the move by the government to deregulate the energy industry by venturing in other energy sectors. For example, the firm should have considered the possibility of venturing into production of clean energy. This move would have played a significant role in dealing with climate change challenges of the 21st century and thus the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation would have improved significantly. Formation of mergers and acquisitions Considering the prevailing economic environment, Enron should have improved its competitive advantage by seeking reputable firms in the industry to form mergers and acquisitions. Some of the potential partners that the firm should have focused on included firms dealing in production of clean energy. In the course of its operation, Enron gained sufficient experience informing mergers and acquisitions. Threats Terrorist threat Ã¢â¬â The threat of terrorism had become real to firms in different economic sectors. Terrorists were increasingly targeting major infrastructure in the US such as energy plants in an effort to sabotage the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. Therefore, the extensive natural gas pipeline that Enron had developed in the US could have attracted terrorists, and such an occurrence could have a significant impact on EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s operation.Advertising Looking for case study on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Economic crisis- Due to the high rate of globalization, the US could not shield itself from the occurrence of another economic recession. The occurrence of a recession could have directly affected Enron because it derived a significant proportion of its revenue from household consumption. Competition In the course of its operation, Enron faced competition challenges emanating from the numerous firms in the US energy industry. The intense competition significantly increased the degree of rivalry within the industry. Consequently, most firms in the industry focused at formulating and implementing strategies that enhanced their ability to increase their market share. One of the strategies that the industry players were focusing on entails research and development. Organizational culture An organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture has a significant impact on how its employees act. This aspect arises from the fact that the culture nurtured by a particular organization affects its traditions and cus tomers coupled with how employees execute their duties and responsibilities. Firms develop their culture over time. Upon his entry into the company, Jeff Skilling intended to transform the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s culture into a Ã¢â¬Å"New EconomyÃ¢â¬ , and to achieve this goal, he focused on transforming the company into becoming an exemplary intellectual capital firm that would greatly delight the shareholders and stakeholders. Consequently, Enron developed a culture that was characterized by intense regulation. This move significantly contributed towards the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s collapse. The firmÃ¢â¬â¢s management team believed that the culture it developed would foster its innovativeness and capacity to adapt. Consequently, the firm recruited the most talented employees mostly composed of new university graduates such as MBA holders. The decision to recruit employees of such caliber hinged on the management teamsÃ¢â¬â¢ emphasis on entrepreneurial thinking and risk taking, which made the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s managers to become overconfident. Enron nurtured an aggressive culture that led to a high rate of employee turnover. This scenario arose from the fact that the firm laid more emphasis on attaining short-term results. The firmÃ¢â¬â¢s management team formulated an employee evaluation program that was conducted after every six months. The objective of the evaluation was to enhance the integrity and creativity amongst the employees. However, this move stressed most of the employees thus reducing their operational efficiency. Employees who succeeded in attaining the set targets received extensive monetary rewards such as salary increments, stock options, and bonuses. SkillingÃ¢â¬â¢s focus on development of such culture did not succeed. Instead, a culture of arrogance, fierce internal competition, and extreme decentralization became the norm. The firmÃ¢â¬â¢s manager was mainly concerned with transforming the institution into a postmodern, hyper-flexible, and a firm th at continuously re-invents in order to align with changes in the external business environment. According to SkillingÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion, this would enable the firm to increase its profitability. Conversely, the ever-changing characteristic of the firm made employees to perceive a significant decline in their job security. Due to its extensive expansion, Enron ventured into unfamiliar territories. The inexperience of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s executives significantly contributed towards the occurrence of mistakes. Additionally, the management teamÃ¢â¬â¢s emphasis on generation of ideas from the employees led to accumulation of information, which the firm could not process adequately. Its over-emphasis on risk taking made the firm to ignore the costs associated with such risks. Additionally, putting pressure on the employees to be creative stimulated most employees to take shortcuts, which were in most cases unethical. The firmÃ¢â¬â¢s employees laid more emphasis on creativity because it a ttracted great rewards compared to integrity. This aspect led to the occurrence of agency problem between shareholders and managers. Employees were mainly concerned with their personal welfare rather than attaining the shareholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ wealth maximization goal. Problems and Key Issues raised in the case The case illustrates a number of problems and key issues that Enron experienced in the course of its operation. One of the major problems evidenced in the case touches on the accounting system used by the firm. Enron adopted an aggressive accounting style whereby the accounting officers inflated figures in the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s financial statements. Additionally, special partnerships were formed with the objective of defrauding the firm. The partnerships rendered the process of accounting very complicated. The accounting officer did not record the actual values in the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s accounting books. The records were made to look attractive, which was not the case. The management team engaged in fraudulent reporting by manipulating the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s revenue and earnings in order to sustain the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s credit rating. Consequently, most investors perceived the firm as a solid and reliable investment partner. The auditors colluded with the management team in return of huge financial gains. Approximately, the auditors and consultants earned between $25 million and $27 million in audit and consulting fees. In the course of executing its oversight duties, Enron ignored the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s financial capacity, which made its shares to rise significantly during the 1990s. Enron relied on the Ã¢â¬Å"mark to MarketÃ¢â¬ accounting system, which enabled it to succeed in adjusting the value of its stocks and shares by reflecting the prevailing market value. By using this method, Enron comfortably reported its expected future earnings as current earnings. Therefore, Enron disregarded its codes of ethics, which is based on integrity, respect, excellence, and communicatio n. The existence of conflict of interest between managers and shareholders comes out clearly given the fact that the executive mainly focused on maximizing their earnings. In August 2001, the company Chief Executive Officer Jeff Skilling resigned from the company and immediately disposed off his stocks, which were valued at more than $33 million. In addition to the accounting fraud, another key issue that is evident in the case study relates to the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s overdependence on making deals. Despite the fact that Enron had developed a professional risk assessment and control committee, the committee did not execute its duties effectively. For example, the committee was reluctant to reject projects that were evidently risky. Its inability to execute this role was necessitated by the fact that the management team mainly focused on making deals that would contribute to increment in the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s cash flows, hence necessitating the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to attain high growth. Addi tionally, the committee was reluctant to express its opinion regarding illegal businesses and practices that the firm was undertaking. This scenario arose from the fact that making such opinions would herald their careerÃ¢â¬â¢s death. The firmÃ¢â¬â¢s management team rewarded blind loyalty to employees and quashed those who portrayed dissent. Enron situation fits perfectly in the theory of planned behavior. The theory explains that there exist reasons behind the occurrence of a particular situation. It asserts that unethical practices such as corruption mainly hinge on specific values and intent. EnronÃ¢â¬â¢s employees mainly focused on engaging themselves in extreme competitive actions and favored unethical practices in order to achieve their desired operational efficiency. The behavior thrived because the employees observed the optimal treatment to individuals who engaged in shortcuts to attain the desired level of creativity. Conclusion and recommendations In summary, the fr aud in Enron Corporation was a result of failure in the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership system, management control, and ineffective organizational culture. Its focus on positioning itself as a Ã¢â¬Å"new economyÃ¢â¬ stimulated employees to engage in unfair activities in order to achieve the desired objective. Additionally, the management team developed a culture that focused on attainment of results rather than nurturing integrity. Consequently, employees engaged in unethical practices and disregarded the codes of ethics implemented by the firm. Therefore, to deal with these challenges, Enron should have considered the following recommendations. Enron should have adopted a progressive-adoptive culture. This culture focuses on generation of new ideas and openness to new ideas. However, it does not force employees to implement the ideas hence it does not enhance unhealthy competition. It would also have been important for the firm to consider nurturing a community-oriented culture, which mainly seeks to ensure a high level of collaboration and cooperation amongst employees. Adoption of such cultures would have played an important role in providing employees with direction. To ensure effective reporting, Enron should have incorporated accrual method of reporting to ensure accurate description of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s value. With regard to control issues, the firm should have adopted a more current control system by reviewing its policies, procedures, and rules. The policies and procedures should have focused on nurturing integrity and ethics. The firm should have remained strict in implementing ethical policies and procedures to refrain employees from unethical behavior. Appendix Action plan on how to implement the recommendations and the expected time duration Action Time December 2012 1st Ã¢â¬â 4th 7th 10th 11th 14th 15th Ã¢â¬â20th Reviewing the organization culture Reviewing the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s reporting system Evaluating the firmÃ¢â¬â¢ s management control system Reviewing the leadership system
Sunday, March 1, 2020
The Rumor of Rapists Luring Victims With a Crying Child Several viral messages that have been circulating, through email and social media since 2005, claim that gang members in various parts of the world have begun using crying children. This claim surrounds the idea that they are pretending to be lost or in distress to lure female victims to secluded places to be assaulted. Police have repeatedly stated that there is no evidence that such tactics are being used by rapists. This viral text and email rumor is considered false and includes several examples over the years, with versions from 2005, 2011, and 2014. See these versions below, review the analysis of the rumor, and learn how viral rape warnings can be misleading. The 2014 Example As Shared on Facebook ATTENTION ALL GIRLS AND LADIES:If you walk from home, school, office or anywhere and you are alone and you come across a little boy crying holding a piece of paper with an address on it, DO NOT TAKE HIM THERE! Take him straight to the police station for this is the new gang way of Kidnap and rape. The incident is getting worse. Warn your families and friends.Repost this please! The 2011 Example As Received Through Email FW: Fox News Alert - Please Read!FROM CNN FOX NEWSThis is from the County Sheriff Department please read this message very carefully.This message is for any lady who goes to work, college or school or even driving or walking the streets alone.-If you find a young person crying on the road showing you their address and is asking you to take them to that address... take that child to the POLICE STATION!! No matter what you do, DONT go to that address. This is a new way for gang members to rape women. Please forward this message to all ladies guys so that they can inform their sisters friends. Please dont feel shy to forward this message. Our 1 message may save a life. Published by CNN FOX NEWS (Please circulate)..**Please DO NOT IGNORE! The 2005 Example As Delivered by Email Subject: New Rape Case TacticHi everyone, I am not sure when did this happen, but it is best to be careful and safety comes first.She was just discharged from the hospital...Today after office hours, I heard from my sister-in-law that there is a new way to rape women It happened to one of our good friends The girl left the office after working hours and saw a little child crying on the road Feeling pity for the child, she went and ask what happened The child said, I am lost. Can you take me home please? Then the child gave her a slip and tell the girl where the address is. And the girl, being an average kind person, didnt suspect anything and took the child there.And there when it arrived the childs home, she pressed the door bell, yet she was shocked as it the bell was wired with high voltage, and fainted. The next day when she woke up, she found herself in an empty house up in the hills, naked.She has never even get to see the face of the attacker... Thats why nowadays crimes are t argeted on kind peopleNext time if the same situation occurs, never bring the child to the intended place. If the child insist, then bring the child to the police station. Lost child are best to send to police stations.Please send this to all your female friends.(my extra note: guys, please tell your mom, your sister, your wife and your girlfriends too!) Analysis of the Viral Message Rumors Even though recent variants of this rumor have been shared under the guise of police warnings or sheriffs department warnings, no reports have been found. This includes documented cases in which rapists actually used, or even attempted to use, crying children as bait to lure female victims. Law enforcement officials have repeatedly denounced these warnings as hoaxes. The earliest version of the hoax was forwarded in 2005 by a reporter in Singapore who had already identified it as an urban legend. Within a month it had made its way to South Africa, and by May 2005 more copies began to circulate from readers in the United States. As of 2013, eight years later, law enforcement agencies were still fielding inquiries about it from El Paso to Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. Viral Rape Warnings Can Be Misleading and Dangerous People sometimes defend viral warnings like these by arguing that, even if false in their particulars, they remind women to keep their wits about them and be careful and that it cant hurt. What weakens that argument is that the false warnings are, in fact, specific. To the degree that potential victims are persuaded to focus their attention on a crying child as a sign that an attacker may be nearby, the more likely it is that theyll be inattentive to other cues, such as real cues, that theyre in danger.
Friday, February 14, 2020
Why Students Plagiarize and Consequences of Plagiarism - Assignment Example This paper seeks to try and identify exactly what is meant by plagiarism, the reason as to why it is so extensive and the probable effects of plagiarism on students and institutions. According to Anderson (1998), plagiarism can essentially be defined as the act of using another personÃ¢â¬â¢s words without undertaking to give the person any of the credit that is due to that person. Plagiarism is seen to have its root set in the traditional Western civilization concept of property ownership. During the historical period of the Greco-Roman era, it was common to find orators and authors frequently borrowing from one another, however, the discovery of such theft was usually met with a lot of public ridicule and sarcasm. Intellectual property protection can be deemed to be primarily concerned about money and the freedom for an individual to develop various ideas into a number of products and works that will be found to be of immense benefit to society. To encourage discovery and creative development among its citizens, the law is designed so as to give an originator a certain amount of time within which he will be allowed to control both the content and disbursement of any of the products which might happen to result from his idea. In the event that someone happens to seat al use this original material, they are liable to be charged with infringement of property. There are a number of reasons as to why plagiarism is found to be so extensive among students within higher education. In a study conducted on a sample size of 5000 students, the results of the study suggested that an estimated three-quarter of the sample group admitted to having engaged in some form of academic cheating. A large number of students in the sample group recorded as having previously plagiarized supports the notion that while it is possible to reduce plagiarism in the various institutions of higher learning, it is nevertheless impossible to completely eliminate it.Ã 16 percent of the students in the study cited the reason as to why they plagiarized was a result of the belief that they would not be caught, students were aware of the rather immense pressure that the university staff were under as a result of teaching and marking the results of a large number of students and believed that they could be able to safely take the chance with submitting plagiarized work.